# Statistics Topics

Introduction to Statistics

Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics

Population vs. Sample

Statistic vs. Parameter

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Variables

Levels of Measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio

Describing Data

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Dispersion

SOCS: A Helpful Acronym for Describing Distributions

Visualizing Data

Boxplots

Stem and Leaf Plots

Scatterplots

Relative Frequency Histogram

Density Curves

Probability

Theoretical Probability

Posterior Probability

How to Interpret Odds Ratios

Law of Large Numbers

Set Operations

The General Multiplication Rule

Study Design

Explanatory & Response Variables

Sampling Methods

What is a Representative Sample?

What is a Sampling Frame?

Matched Pairs Design

Pretest-Posttest Design

Split-Plot Design

Permuted Block Randomization

Latin Hypercube Sampling

Random Variables

What Are Random Variables?

CDF vs. PDF: What’s the Difference?

The Normal Distribution

The Binomial Distribution

The Poisson Distribution

The Geometric Distribution

The Uniform Distribution

The Exponential Distribution

The Hypergeometric Distribution

The Negative Binomial Distribution

The Multinomial Distribution

Sampling Distributions

What is a Sampling Distribution?

Central Limit Theorem

Confidence Intervals

What are Confidence Intervals?

Confidence Interval for a Mean

Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Means

Confidence Interval for a Proportion

Confidence Interval for the Difference in Proportions

Confidence Interval for a Standard Deviation

Confidence Interval for a Correlation Coefficient

Hypothesis Testing

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

One Sample t-test

Two Sample t-test

Welch’s t-test

Mann-Whitney U Test

Paired Samples t-test

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

One Proportion Z-Test

Two Proportion Z-Test

P-values and Effect Size

How to Interpret a P-Value of 0.000

How to Calculate a P-Value from a t Test By Hand

Three Ways to Find a P-Value from a t Statistic

An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

A Simple Explanation of Statistical vs. Practical Significance

How to Find Z Alpha/2 (za/2)

Effect Size

Bayes Factor

Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

Chi-Square Test of Independence

Fisher’s Exact Test

Effect Size for a Chi-Square Test

Regression

Introduction to Simple Linear Regression

How to Perform Simple Linear Regression by Hand

Introduction to Multiple Linear Regression

How to Perform Multiple Linear Regression by Hand

Testing the Significance of a Regression Slope

How to Read and Interpret a Regression Table

How to Interpret Regression Coefficients

The F-Test of Overall Significance in Regression

Understanding the Standard Error of the Regression

How to Calculate Residuals in Regression Analysis

Heteroscedasticity in Regression

Multicollinearity in Regression

The Breusch-Pagan Test

ANOVA

One-Way ANOVA

One-Way ANOVA by Hand

Two-Way ANOVA

Repeated Measures ANOVA

Repeated Measures ANOVA By Hand

ANOVA Post Hoc Tests

Dunnett’s Test for Multiple Comparisons

Dunn’s Test for Multiple Comparisons

ANCOVA

Kruskal-Wallis Test

Friedman Test

Resources:

Last modified 2yr ago